Anatomy of Fluid Pumps
Do you own a submersible pump? In commercial and residential settings, fluid pumps play a crucial role. Available in varying designs, sizes, and features, fluid pumps handle a range of functions. This varies from routine sewage management to demanding flood control, among other applications. Most users give the sewage pumps little to no attention unless broken. Nonetheless, knowing their anatomy can significantly help. You don’t have to be a pro; a little knowledge goes a long way as it can help you troubleshoot and keep the fluid pump running. Knowing the sewage pumps parts and functions can also help you establish if it needs some replacements or just an adjustment before calling the pro. Here is a quick look at the fluid pumps’ anatomy to get you started.
Fluid pumps components
Despite the differences in sizes, design, and features, the pumps feature two primary parts. These are the volute and the motor.
This is the part that receives fluids. Herein, you’ll find components including impeller and diffuser. The impeller is a rotor whose function is to increase pressure and fluid flow. The primary impeller’s components are the eye, veins, channels, and bore. The eye is where the fluids get in, the veins push it, and channel the space where it flows. The bore is the space where the motor shaft attaches to the volute. Impellers are available in single or double suction. The configuration also varies, with the primary options being open, semi-open, and closed impellers.
The diffuser’s function is to increase the flow rate, lower the flow velocity, and increase flow pressure. Following the pump’s feature, the diffuser can either be; separate, as a ring, or as vanes on the impeller. In systems like submersible pumps, you can find multi-stage options featuring multiple levels, each with its impeller and diffuser. The volute also houses the suction inlet, where the fluids flow in, and the discharge outlet where it exits.
The motor is the pump’s workhorse that converts the electrical energy into mechanical energy, powering the operation. Following the design and features, the motor can be oil-cooled (ODP) or fan-cooled (TEFC). The motor’s primary components are the rotor, stator, windings, spline shaft, and shaft sleeve/bearing. The stator is the electromagnetic circuit, typically the stationary part. Windings have wires wrapped and laminated with a magnetic iron core. This forms the magnetic poles once energized by the current flow. The rotor turns the shaft while the spline shaft is attached to the impeller, delivering mechanical power transferred to the motor’s volute. The sleeve/bearing’s purpose is to support the load, facilitating motion while reducing friction.
While the fluid pump’s mechanism might sound scary, it is not that complicated. Once you understand each part and its function, it’ll be easier to establish what needs to be repaired or replaced. The basic mechanism that facilitates pumping involves the motor powering the shaft connecting to and spinning the impeller. This creates suction, bringing the fluids through the inlet and pushing it to ejection through the discharge outlet.